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References

Books and articles used while writing articles at this web page.
Listed also as worth reading for everyone interested in Mobile Telecom Networks:
[1] R. Kreher, T. Rüdebush: "UMTS Signaling. UMTS Interfaces, Protocols, Message Flows and Procedures Analyzed and Explained" 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2007
[2] J. Kołakowski, J.Cichocki: "UMTS System Telefonii Komórkowej Trzeciej Generacji" Wydanie 2 zmienione, Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. 2007
[3] H. Kaaraen, A. Ahtiainen, L. Laitinen, S. Naghian, V. Niemi: "UMTS Networks. Architecture, Mobility and Services" 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2005
[4] A. Richardson: "WCDMA Design Handbook", Cambridge University Press 2005
[5] H. Holma, A. Toskala "WCDMA for UMTS - HSPA Evolution and LTE" 4th Edition,  John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2007
[6] J. Bannister, P. Mather, S.Coope "Convergence Technologies for 3G Networks. IP, UMTS, EGPRS and ATM" John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2004
[7] E. Dahlman, S. Parkvall, J. Sköld, P. Beming "3G Evolution - HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband" 2nd Edition, Elsevier Ltd. 2008
[8] J. Korhonen "Introduction to 3G Mobile Communications" 2nd Edition Artech House Inc. 2003
[9] H. Holma, A. Toskala "WCDMA for UMTS - HSPA Evolution and LTE" 5th Edition,  John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2010
[10] "Basic Concepts of HSPA" - Ericsson White Paper - February 2007
[11] St. Maszczyk, J. Kołakowski, J. Cichocki "Techniki szybkiej transmisji danych w systemie UMTS" - Przegląd Telekomunikacyjny 10/2005
[12] HSPA+ Advanced Smart Networks: Multipoint Transmission  - Qualcomm Incorporated Feb 2011
[13] K. Johansson, J. Bergman, D. Gerstenberger, M. Blomgren, A. Wallén "Multi Carrier HSPA Evolution" - Ericsson
[14] Dual Cell HSDPA and its Future Evolution - Nomor Research January 2009
[15] HSPA+ Technology Introduction - White Paper - Rhode and Schwarz
[16] Continued HSPA Evolution of mobile broadband - Ericsson Review 1 2009
[17] Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution - Qualcomm Incorporated Dec 2007
[18] LTE Advanced: Heterogeneous Networks - Qualcomm Incorporated Feb 2010
[19] Heterogeneous networks - increasing cellular capacity - Ericsson Review 1 2011
[20] 4G Mobile Broadband Evolution: Release 10, Release 11 and Beyond - HSPA, SAE/LTE and LTE-Advanced - 4G Americas
[21] Christopher Cox "An Introduction to LTE: LTE, LTE-Advanced, SAE and 4G Mobile Communications" John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2012
[22] Voice Over LTE Volte - Anritsu Sep 2012
[23] E. Seurre, P. Savelli, P-J. Pietri "GPRS for Mobile Internet" 2003 ARTECH HOUSE
[24] E.Dahlman, S.Parkvall "4G LTE-Advanced Pro and The Road to 5G" 2016 Elsevier Ltd
[25] 

3GPP Specifications:
[23.401] General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access
[23.402] Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP accesses
[23.060] General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 2
[25.305] Stage 2 functional specification of User Equipment (UE) positioning in UTRAN
[36.300] Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage 2
[24.301] Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet System (EPS); Stage 3
[21.905] Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications
[37.340] NR; Multi-connectivity; Overall description; Stage-2

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NAS: Non-Access Stratum

This post is to give short description of NAS protocols, procedures and functions.
NAS is a layer for communication between Ue and Core Network (CN). This communication is transparent for underlaying Access Stratum.
NAS protocols:
GMM - GPRS Mobility ManagementMM - Mobility Management SM - Session ManagementCC - Call Control SS - Supplementary Services SMS - Short Message Services SM, SMS, SS and CC form a group of protocols called Connection Management.


Figure - Inter protocols communication MS side [3GPP 24.007]



SM - its functions is to activate, deactivate or modify PDP contexts which are sessions for PS traffic in UMTS/GPRS networks

Figure 1 - Simplified PDP context activation procedure



Figure 2 - Inter protocol communication for PDP context activation - MS side



CC - its functions is to establish, maintain and finally release CS calls in UMTS/GPRS/GSM networks

Figure 3- Simplified CS call proceeding


Figure 4 - Inter protocol communication for CS call setup



Abbreviations

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNPRSTUWV
3GPPThird Generation Partnership Project
AALATM Adaptation Layer
ADCHAssociated DCH
ADSLAsymetric Digital Subscriber Line
ALCAPAccess Link Control Application Part
ARFCNAbsolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
ARQAutomatic Repeat reQuest
ATMAsynchronous Transfer Mode
BCCHBroadcast Control Channel
BCHBroadcast ChannelBERBit Error RateBICCBearer Independent Call ControlBLERBlock Error RateBPSKBinary Phase Shift KeyingBSCBase Station ControllerBSSBase Station SubsystemBTSBase Transceiver StationCAMELCustomised Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic
CCCall Control
CCCHCommon Control Channel
CDMCode Division Multiplexing
CDMACode Division Multiple Access
CNCore Network
CMConnection Management
CPICHCommon Pilot Channel
CQIChannel Quality Indicator
CRCCyclic Redundancy Check
C-RNTICell Radio Network Temporary Identifier
CSCirciut Switch
CRNCControlling Radio Network Controller
DCHDedicated Channel
DNSDomain Name Server
DL-SCHDownlink Shared Channel
DRNCDrift Radio Network Controller
DS-CDM…

Protocols, interfaces, User Plane and Control Plane

When two devices would like to communicate with each other they would use a defined protocol. Protocol is set of rules describing how those two devices can communicate in way that receiver would understand what sender “had in mind” while sending message. Protocol description is usually description of messages (signals) that can be sent and received, it is also description for particular procedures and functions.
Now, our two devices know “how to talk” to each other, but they need to be connected somehow. For this purpose an Interface would be defined. Interface would be generally another device, with or without dedicated software, that would allow connecting, inter-working and changing messages(signals) between our devices – connected using this interface.
Sometimes when connecting two devices using interface there is a need for two protocols. First protocol would allow first device to control how works the second one. This kind of protocol is part of control plane. Second protocol wo…